Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander issued an edict expelling all Jews from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (including Ukraine). Historians have offered various explanations for the expulsion: the negative influence (religious intolerance) of Alexander's tutor; the precedent set three years earlier by the sensational expulsion of Jews from Catholic Spain; and the perceived threat of proselytizing by the Christian sect called "the Judaizers." Challenged by economic needs, Grand Duke Alexander revoked the expulsion edict in 1503, invited the Jewish exiles back, and ordered the restoration of their confiscated property.
- Omeljan Pritsak, "The Pre-Ashkenazic Jews of Eastern Europe in Relation to the Khazars, the Rus' and the Lithuanians," in Ukrainian-Jewish Relations in Historical Perspective, Peter Potichnyj & Howard Aster, eds. (Edmonton, 1988), 15–16;
- Magda Teter, "Judaizers," YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe (2010).